Key affected populations, HIV and AIDS

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People who belong to key affected populations (KAPs) are people who, for one reason or another, are more vulnerable to HIV infection.

This could be because they engage in high-risk behaviours such as injecting drugs, or because they are marginalised by society and fearful of accessing HIV services.

An effective response to the HIV epidemic requires that these groups are targeted by HIV prevention programmes with information and services that are specific to them.

Men who have sex with men

Homosexual acts are illegal in Kenya preventing men who have sex with men (MSM) from accessing HIV services.

People who inject drugs

14% of all people who inject drugs are living with HIV. People who inject drugs are repeatedly denied access to harm reduction programmes.

Sex workers

Sex workers are 12 times more likely to be living with HIV than the general population and are difficult for HIV services to reach.


Incarceration increases HIV vulnerability, especially when prisoners engage in high risk behaviours like injecting drugs.


Women are often vulnerable to HIV due to unequal gender relations which affects their ability to negotiate condom use.


240,000 children became infected with HIV in 2013, the majority of which were from mother-to-child during pregnancy or breastfeeding.

Young people and adolescents

Young people are a priority for HIV prevention messages because it’s most effective to change behaviour before sexual debut.

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